Head of Marketing & Sub Editor for On Landscape. Dabble in digital photography, open water swimmer, cooking buff & yogi.
During our Meeting of Minds Conference held at The Rheged Centre from the 18-20th November 2016, we ran a community exhibition. Each of the delegates was invited to submit an image into the exhibition which was to be exhibited in the Rheged's main exhibition space. Fotospeed supported the venture and kindly printed and mounted each image on foamboard for us.
The exhibition was part of our goal of creating conversation and bringing together like-minded people to talk about their craft and passion for landscape photography.
Sadly we could only keep the exhibition up for the weekend of the conference and it seems a shame not to show the work here in On Landscape.
We're already working on 2018 Meeting of Minds Conference and seeing if we can extend the length of the exhibition so more people can visit and engage with the wonderful images.
Thank you to everyone who participated in our inaugural Meeting of Minds Community Exhibition. Please click on the images to view full screen.
As our ferry slipped out of Lochmaddy on its way to the Isle of Harris, the light was fading and an evening gloom started to envelope the ship. It all seemed very calm but at the same time somehow foreboding – and yes, rain set-in once we were out on open water
Early morning mist shrouding the normally busy view from the Albert Dock on the river Mersey. What can’t be heard are the ethereal sounds of the many fog horns and warning bells that created a truly magical and mysterious scene.
Berries, River Nent
Over several years, Alan has concentrated on a short stretch of the River Nent near his home in Alston, Cumbria. The river Nent is a tributary of the South Tyne.
Abandoned Croft, Staffin, Isle of Skye
Behind the campsite in Staffin I found this outwardly abandoned cottage, but peering through the broken windows the ironing board was still up and dried flowers were in a vase in the window as if someone had left in a hurry that morning. Taken using Iford Delta 100 and a Zero Image 2000 pinhole camera.
Thunderstorm, Fangs Pass
A thunderstorm approaches Fangs Pass on the Drakensberg Escarpment in South Africa. Moments later I was sprinting back to the tent in an onslaught of hail.
River Ouse, York
My image is a stitched panorama taken on the afternoon of Boxing Day 2015. We had just managed to get through the rising floodwaters near York and decided to stop in York for food and to see how bad it actually was. This view of the swollen Ouse from Ouse Bridge, looking towards King’s Staith shows the effects of building on a floodplain
One of an increasing number of B&W landscapes I have, this was taken across a small valley while lost in Dumfries on holiday in 2015 and is about a third of the full panorama. The whole area is undergoing heavy logging and it is unlikely that I will see these hillsides covered in trees like this in my lifetime again.
This was taken on a workshop in North Wales with Richard Childs exploring the abandoned slate mine workings and all taken on film with a Hasselblad 500cm. The mines are slowly being taken back by nature which is why it was such a perfect location for me and I think. Using black and white seems to fit the gritty industrial nature of the locations, can’t wait to go back.
Whitemill Bay, Sanday
Taken on the final day of a trip to Orkney this summer, the mist and drizzle clearing at the very end of the day.
Sgur a Choire with squall & gulls, Elgol, Skye, 2015
After an otherwise overcast day in December, dusk light was to break through heavy cloud and briefly illuminate a passing rain storm over the Cuillin mountains and loch creating a moment of spectacular impressionistic beauty.
More of a weathered scape than a landscape perhaps. Captured on film glorious film.
Taken amongst the incredible, apparently unending (daylight ran out before I ran out of subject matter) vehicles belonging to Archie Lewis in Moriarty, New Mexico. This little fish, in a big sea of beautifully decaying cars, deserved to have its curvaceous lines and colours preserved forever.
View from a carriage in Bath
One of the advantages of taking an early morning train is to see the landscape from a different viewpoint, higher and from a different angle. On a day when it is not a misty start, this harmony of country living and nature is hardly noticeable for farm buildings and other man-made impediments.
Last sun rays on the glacier
Driving east along route one in southern Iceland towards Skaftafell. We were about an hour away from sunset and the sun was illuminating the top of the glacier with a rosy pink wash of light that demanded a quick stop.
Be twice twenty-one we had lingered atop the horn there and lay near the eagles’ circling. Panorama of Upper Loch Torridon, Ben Alligin and Liathach in April 2016 the day before our wedding anniversary (42nd)
Honister Pass in a Gale
The beck tumbles over a jumble of varied glacial rocks as it flows toward Buttermere (in an autumn gale).
One Below Zero
Holme Fen at around -1m altitude. I’m not sure what the temperature was, but not far off that.
Old ruined barns near Muker in Swaledale, the Yorkshire Dales. Many barns in the Dales have been restored but these ones have so far missed out.
The Wave’s Caress
I was out at one of my favourite locations on the island of Anglesey – Llanddwyn – teaching a weekend workshop. I pretty soon realised that we had something fairly special going on as the waves rolled in, caressed the beach and then pulled back leaving gorgeous patterns and trails. It was truly mesmerising!
The Winding Road
This image was taken on the Kjölur route in the Central Highlands of Iceland. The remote road is an epic one which cuts between the Langjökull and Hofsjökull ice caps and is only passable in a 4WD for a few months of the year.
Crystal clear water and reflected light. Lower river gorge, Abisko National Park, Sweden.
Castle Crag and the Borrowdale Fells, November 2014
The end of one the best days I have ever spent behind a camera.
Milford Sound, New Zealand
This image is unusual for me as I normally work in B&W. It was taken off a boat in the Fiordland National Park in New Zealand. They weather conditions were poor with a lot of rain and spray making things a bit interesting.
The highlight of my visit to Namibia in April this year was a dawn trip to Sossusvlei. In the brief opportunity when the rising sun catches the edge of the dunes, I was struck by this ‘arrowhead’ of shadow, surrounded by the rippling sand.
Storm at Haweswater
April storm on Haweswater this year on a David ward & Mark Littlejohn workshop, Mark taking us up a wee 10 min (read 30 min) climb to a great view over the reservoir, then the storms came through, including hail and snow.
Smailholm Tower, Scottish Borders, near Kelso
Smailholm is a fortified house built in the 15th century at the time of the Border Reivers. It later became the childhood home of Sir Walter Scott.
Scott described the powerful effect on his imagination of the Border ballads told to him here at this time and the sight of the ancient tower, “standing stark and upright like a warden”.
Heather, cnoc and lochan
This image was made at sunrise in August, not far from the Golden Road that winds its way through this coastal landscape. It seeks to capture both the ruggedness of the terrain and the tranquility of the moment.
Even at the height of summer Walltown, in the Northumberland National Park, can be a chilly place thanks to a near-constant wind blowing in from Cumbria and the Solway Firth.
After the Pub, Great Habton
Leaving The Grapes in Great Habton after a meal with our friends the light was captivating. We had to walk past our cottage on the way to our friends for a coffee so I popped in for my camera. This field and tree is only 200 yards from the pub and 50 yards from our friends.
East Force, Keld
I do like photographing waterfalls. I think it’s the way you can convey movement in a still image, and in my opinion Swaledale has some of the best.
Eroding Wreck with Sea Barnacles and Shells
I was drawn to a wreck on a beach as the intensity of the sun accentuated the burnt orange colour of a wreck to emphasise it’s detail of seabanacle and shell attached to it. In close up, I managed to magnify the chaotic circular shapes, almost as though to emulate the erratic brushstrokes of a Jackson Pollock painting.
Where twisted rocks run down to the sea
Inspired by lyrics from Phil Colclough`s “A Song for Ireland”, this image was made of sunset across Galway Bay form The Burren in County Clare.’
This photograph was taken at Saltwick Nab just by Whitby, Yorkshire, using a Song Alpha A900 DSLR. I took this during a personal project, whereby I aimed to explore how tranquility can be interpreted in the landscape.
Into The Light
Chasing the last of the icebergs around Boavista Peninsula, Newfoundland.
A secluded bay on the north Pembrokeshire coast. Hidden amongst the complex and contorted rock strata are many partially submerged caves, mostly inaccessible from the land.
Tree of Life
This image was taken at the end of Glen Brittle. It reflects the 50 years since my previous visit as a child to the Isle of Skye.
Auvergne: Col de la Croix Morand, February 2016
At an elevation of over 1400m, biting winter winds contort the isolated birch and pine. In harsh conditions, these often stunted shapes can be heavily clad in ice and snow, leaving the delicate, coral like appearance understated in its beauty.
Totley Moor mist
This image was captured in the Peak District on a delightfully foggy day last September. I’m always drawn to the way that mist and fog can add mystery and intrigue to what would otherwise be a rather ordinary scene.
Winter is coming
To Snowdonia and this tree, against all odds, thrives in what can be an inhospitable environment. As snow gently falls around it the tree is symbol of the strength that is needed to flourish in such times of hardship.
Cave Wood, Wye Valley
The framing and viewpoint, angled down towards the ground, was chosen to give a blank canvas of snow to show off the “twiddly bits” against.
This fence caught my eye as I walked along the New Bedford River bank near Sutton Gault in Cambridgeshire. The land had been intentionally flooded and this fence dropped down the riverbank into the water. To me the cloud reflections in the calm water give it a rather serene feel.
Mickleden, Upper Great Langdale
The forecast was low cloud with risk of sleet, so we decided to stay low. Having come down from Blea tarn, I liked the view into Mickleden with some light on the farmed lowland, abutting the moor above, which disappears into the low cloud and murk hanging in the Pikes.
Morning mist, Loch Ard
Our first visit to Loch Ard and we were treated to these fabulous conditions of the trees emerging from the morning mist. Loch Ard has an east-west alignment, so it is good for for early morning and evening light, this and its ability to hold on to mist for long periods make it a photographer’s dream location.
Nature’s Opals, Lake Laberge, Near Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada
Sunrise is later in the winter months in the Yukon. As I drank my coffee one morning last November, I watched the warm pink glow of a new day slide across the newly forming ice on Lake Laberge. Blue ice and pink light – Nature’s Opals emerging before my eyes
Cnoc Ceann a’ Ghàrraidh
Also known as Callanish II, Cnoc Ceann a’ Ghàrraidh is a stone ring close to the main stone circle. This image was made soon after sunrise in late August 2016.
An early summer sunrise illuminates the Italian Dolomites. This image was taken from Rifugio Lagazuoi whilst walking the Alta Via 1 trail in June of this year.
Above Aysgarth Falls
Force of Nature
This one is a ‘grab shot’ – hand held with a long exposure, using a Fuji X-100. The venue is Cragside House in Northumberland – a venue synonymous with the Armstrong dynasty and their efforts to harness the power of water.
Abandoned House, Harris
Visiting Harris with David Ward in May, I was the last in a group of photographers to take pictures of the inside of this house. As I left, I saw this view of the back and stopped to capture it. David and team were waiting impatiently for me to finish, but I persisted!
I set out to photograph what looked like a promising sunset whilst visiting friends on the Isle of Skye. Looking away from the setting sun I saw these three small islands (Clett, Isay and Mingay) shrouded in mist and seeming to rise out of the calm sea. A beautifully tranquil scene I couldn’t resist!
From 2010 this is a local shot from which I have learned:
1. Views exist everywhere so explore behind large walls along unremarkable main roads.
2. Weather is an opportunity not a barrier.
3. You think you know your own work, but others see it differently.
Oldshoremore Bay, Sutherland, Scotland
There are many stunning bays and beaches on the NW coast of Scotland and Oldshoremore Bay ranks as one of my favourites. On this occasion I used a Lee Big Stopper in an attempt to capture the tranquil mood of the scene, with the subtle colours of the sea and sand under a somewhat threatening sky. Fortunately it didn’t rain!
Taken in January 10 mins from my backdoor.
Approaching storm, Svínafellsjökull
With ice axes and crampons, we went for a morning walk on the Svínafellsjökull glacier, in southern Iceland. Dark, foreboding clouds were a constant presence. We carried on, the storm never reached us.
Autumn at Stourhead
The view across the lake to the temple of flora, nestling in the trees, is one of my favourites, especially in Autumn.
This image was taken in the Auvergne in March this year.
Gole di Breggia
The Gole di Breggia is a steep-sided gorge, located near Chiasso in southern Switzerland, where tightly folded strata of limestone and sandstone have been laid bare by the fast-flowing river Breggia. This makes it a particularly fascinating location for landscape photography.
It was the alignment of the swirling marram grasses with the hills behind that initially caught my eye. Some further careful repositioning of the tripod allowed me to build up several echoes of line and form throughout the image.
Sarine No. 1 (Canton de Fribourg, Switzerland)
As a hydrologist I often take pictures of water. Capturing the dynamics in a still image is always a challenge. This one was taken while travelling light (Fuji XE-2 + Contax G 90mm lens). Most of my work is still on 6×6 film.
The Great Ridge, Derbyshire
Perhaps, not a ‘classic’ sunrise but it was one worth getting up for…and getting back to cook breakfast before anyone else had stirred.
Dinorwig, Wales. Late sun on slate
Mist, Drewsteignton, Dartmoor, Devon, October 2015
This was my first serious attempt at landscape photography, my first outing with the D750 and the first time I had got up so early in ages.
Bronzed sands of Whitby
This was taken just after sunset one September evening in Whitby. The birds were following the tide line as it receded, and I was fascinated by their subtle movement. The light was playing on the sand and changing by the second.
Prairie grasses, New Mexico, November ’15
One of those days, I should have been working really. I couldn’t, I couldn’t face the world this day. The day matched my mood. I was in no rush, I had no agenda, I had to clear my mind with a walk .
Horgabost, Approaching Squall
Sad Deserted Shore
This image was taken near Aultbea on the NW coast of Scotland. If you look closely you will see a figure on the shore. I have tried to create a particular mood by restricting the colour palette and using the the lyrics from a song by Sandy Denny as the title.
Borlum Bay, Loch Ness
This image was shot early morning on Loch Ness. I live by the Loch and often visit this location but it is unusual to be able to capture such a still, misty morning.
Autumn Woods, Exmoor
The late afternoon light was briefly highlighting a few branches and leaves. I used a shallow depth of field to concentrate on these and to enhance the mystery of the woods beyond.
View Over The Luddenden Valley, West Yorkshire
The atmospheric rural landscapes and rich industrial heritage of the Southern Pennines have always captured my imagination. This view of Oats Royd Mill on the flanks of the Luddenden Valley encapsulates everything that I find so inspiring about this most characterful corner of northern England.
An intimidating and brooding high mountain crag which provides climbers with stern tests in both summer and winter. The aura of the crag is enhanced by the names of the climbs including Ringwraith, Shadowfax and The Nazgul. The is the view across from Lingmoor Fell in late October – throughout the winter virtually no direct sun will illuminate the face.
St Mary’s Lighthouse, Whitley Bay, or as I’ve nicknamed her “the Lady”.
Iconic, teasing, an endless treasure trove for artists and photographers. A causeway to die for and every mood imaginable, never disappoints. So many veils, so many meanings…for me the Mona Lisa of our wonderful Northumberland coastline.
Rocks, trees, water
Description: A semi-abstract account of a small river in Swaledale, North Yorkshire (October 2016) using colour, form and texture to explore a response to an early autumn landscape.
Three Trees, Hokkaido, Japan, 2016
November Radiance, Epping Forest
Epping Forest displays its full autumn glory during a very atmospheric morning last year.
The Magic Ring
Danebury Ring is an Iron-Age hill fort near Winchester. For me it can be a somewhat magical place – on a still evening one can almost hear the ghosts. In this image I tried to capture something of that feeling.
Reeds, Skipwith Common
In camera multiple exposure of reeds in a frozen pond. Overexposed deliberately to remove distracting elements and converted to B/W to provide the abstract graphic quality I was looking for
The Reflecting Pool (series, #0437), North Yorkshire
I went for the trees but found a seasonal pool, already visibly shrinking in extent. New worlds within await, the only pre-condition for entry a little imagination. Birch trees, a wood, inverted; reinverted and reinvented. Layered stems and branches dissolve into watery paint, ever softening. Look long and deep enough into a pool of water and your gaze will be returned – what we see is a reflection of who we are.
Fields and Fells
In February I moved from Cornwall to the heart of the Lake District. I relished this amazing opportunity by challenging myself to complete 100 different walks over the course of the year. Number 46 was a short walk through St John’s in the Vale offering stunning views of the Derwent Fells.
A state of abstracted musing or dreamy meditation. This woodland daydream goes some way towards expressing my love of nature and the joy that the creative struggle of photography brings me. Although not overly typical of my work, I’m drawn back to this image – although I’ve still to work out why!
Hard & Soft, Elgol, Isle of Skye, Scotland
Blue Curve, Luskentyre
As the tide ebbs and flows at Luskentyre on the Isle of Harris, the shapes and the shades of blue, turquoise and white in the water and the sand are unending.
Black and Light, Gruinard Bay, Scottish Highlands
I wanted to create an under-exposed image to bring out the highlights.
Búðir, Snaefellness Peninsula, Iceland
Inevitably, it’s easy to get drawn in by the honeypot locations wherever you go in the world, and I’m no different. I try as much as possible to find images that aren’t of the most obvious subject at a location, however, and this is why the sweep of movement in this grass attracted me more than the pretty church behind.
Storm Brewing Over Camber Sands
Several members of Guildford Photographic Society were on a workshop at Rye and Camber in early March, led by the excellent Paul Sanders, when seriously bad weather arrived from the sea. We were hailed on for a few minutes before conditions cleared – but the light while it was happening was excellent.
The Wheat Field
This photograph was taken at the edge of one of my favourite Yorkshire Wolds locations, the dry chalk valley system of Millington Pastures. I have spent many years exploring these steep-sided open access dales, one of which, Frendal Dale, can be seen in the distance. The broken sheaves at the edge of a wheat field created wonderful shapes and texture as the last rays of sunlight glanced across the golden ears. A pastoral symphony!
This image was captured early one morning by the side of Derwent Water in February at the end of an inspiring week under the workshop leadership of Mark Littlejohn. The warming glow of sunrise lit the clouds above one of the most photogenic mountains in the Lake District.
Power of the Sea
The image was taken at Saltwick Bay, Yorkshire, and shows the slow, continuous destructive power of the sea. It has been composed with the main subject elements centrally positioned in the frame, and the colour range has been adjusted a little to emphasise the two main contrasting colours of blue and orange.
A simple graphic image of a stubble field captured on a snowy day, with the row of trees just disappearing in the blizzard in the background. I was drawn to the graphic nature of the scene, so I’ve deliberately printed it very high contrast to emphasise this graphic look.
Having seen the potential of this location on a previous visit I returned with my Large Format camera and found that I had only one sheet of Velvia. With no margin for error and fast changing light seeing the transparency come out of my processor was a moment of joy.
Frozen Lake, Rif, Iceland
On a snowy, icy, windy day in February 016, I passed by Rif airfield. The lake was frozen over, but the wild light that accompanied the weather conditions revealed the extraordinary shapes, colours and textures from what was underneath the surface.
Harris and Lewis
Captured on a visit to Harris and Lewis earlier in 2016. The image conveys for me the importance of the sea in shaping the land.
Vatnajokull from Hofn
Amongst the dark stands…
Three small silver rich trees stand in a small clearing surrounded by the brooding presence of a stand of conifers in Gleann Meadal, Sleat, Isle of Skye.
I am sure you would recognise the view. In a snow shower i had to improvise and use a bit of imagination. If you check out page 109 of Scotland’s Mountains,by Joe Cornish, my little bit of bracken is in the foreground somewhere.
This image forms part of a long-term, on-going project to document the life of an ancient cherry tree, Prunus avium, the second oldest/largest in the UK. Anthropomorphic projection has long been a concept inseparable from my visualisation of detail in landscape photography and here the warm gentle glow from the setting sun created the effect I had been seeking to achieve for some time.
Taken on a trip to Death Valley back in 2008, this is the photo that started my obsession with derelict places and things. Thinking about my journey as a photographer, it also helped broadening my photographic interest well beyond ‘classical’ landscapes into man-made ones, details and textures.
The View from Pettico Wick
On the first few visits to the National Trust for Scotland’s St Abb’s Head National Nature Reserve these extraordinary geological formations were masked by a soupy haze which obscured the chaotic drama of the millions of tons of folded rocks on this stretch of the Coast Path from Newcastle to Edinburgh.
High Summer on the Jurassic Coast
This is 6 picture stitch panorama was taken in August on high ground overlooking The Knoll, on the Jurassic Coast between Bridport and Portland. The field patterns and manorial villages along this valley reflect its medieval past – with small hedged field shapes clustering around locally quarried stone churches, barns and cottages.
The Giant and the Witch’ at Tjornuvik on the Faroe Islands
This image was taken into the face of a sleet storm with very high winds and was my main ‘keeper image’ from my trip as it truly expressed to me the majesty of the Faroe seascape.
Sunset on Ynys Mon
This photograph was taken from Newborough Beach on the Isle of Anglesey, North Wales. Fishermen are casting their rods and in the distance is the beautiful view of Snowdonia across the water.
Ashness Jetty, Storm over Derwentwater, Cumbria
This image means a great deal to me; I feel that it exudes atmosphere as all good photographs should rather than simply being a record shot of what was in front of the lens. This I.C.M. image holds so much more emotion than the “straight” tripod-mounted 30-second exposures which followed and will forever remind me of the battering wind and the lashing rain I endured whilst standing on the flooded jetty.
This photograph was taken in August this year at the bottom of Glen Etive. It was a very blustery day which provided more atmospheric lighting conditions to the superb Scottish Highland scenery.
This image resonated with me for inclusion in the conference exhibition as it was taken on my only previous visit to the Lakes District. It was taken on the only photo shoot I managed on an interrupted visit. But, it was one of the most spectacular sunrises I have witnessed and I have been looking forward to getting back ever since.
An early morning visit to Curbar Edge in the Peak District did not result in the cloud inversion I had hoped for. So I moved on to Ramsley moor where the trees were veiled in mist but the sun was trying to burn it’s way through the cloud.
Along the Boardwalk
This was taken late afternoon at local Surrey heathland Thursday Common. I was using a camera we have recently had converted to Infrared – having a lot of fun with it.’
I was drawn to the patterns formed by dripping rain falling off bare trees with autumnal leaves in the water providing some ambiguity.
Northern exposure, Autumn
The NW corner of Svalbard in the high Arctic – the first signs of winter
Autumn Reflections, Kirroughtree
One of those rare occasions of being in the right place at the right time with a camera! Mist forming over a tranquil autumnal lakeside. Beautiful!
This was my grandmother’s favourite bay on Gower and I always try to visit it when I travel to South Wales. Taken on a brooding November afternoon with an incoming tide threatening the tripod legs, this is an exposure of about 1 minute 20secs, using a 10 stop filter.
Church at Vic, Icelandc
After taking pictures on the beach, I turned round and saw the church in the distance. The scale of the church in comparison to the mountains impressed me. It was taken on my Nikon D700 camera, which I’ve had converted to take infrared.
An iconic view of America. I wanted to give it a twist, a stamp of my own. So I shot it with an IR camera, and converted to B/W. The effect makes the sky stand out quite crisply which certainly wasn’t so evident on the day. I like the little cars in the foreground that define the scale of the landscape.
San Francisco Bay Bridge from Fishermans’ Wharf
One of the key elements in the picture is the lighting on the distressed pontoon pillars in the foreground. This came from neon streetlights about thirty feet away, just enough to provide the colour and tone, but not so close to affect the main image.
Sunrise at Fermoyle Beach, Dingle Peninsular
The emotions of serenity and tranquillity very early in the morning at Fermoyle beach on the Dingle peninsular with the sun just peeking above the horizon, its shaft of light hitting the rock before the sun blasts onto the scene. My feelings then disappeared when my eyes were confronted by a new vista and I reacted to the light in a totally different way by refocusing my thoughts on the panorama of light.
Tungenesset, Senja, Norway
Trym Ivar Bergsmo
I was teaching a workshop in the end of January having two days of windy and wet weather. We went to Tungenesset, a famous location on Senja, during the rainy weather to photographed the moving water and the ice which came loose because of the large waves. All of sudden the fog lifted and for a few seconds we saw Okstindan (The Devil’s Teeth).
Windmills in the Mist
Kinderdijk shot early morning in April 2014. A Dutch friend (in the image) and I spent a long weekend shooting the industrial tulip bulb growing fields and the Kinderdijk. Living locally meant we could maximise our time and have the place to ourselves.
Over 20 million people live within an hour’s drive of the Peak District National Park…Journeys through the landscape is an ongoing personal project which evolved for visual artist Valerie Dalling some two years ago, after drawing inspiration from the 17th century journals of Celia Fiennes who explored England on horseback, and more recently the travel writer Robert Macfarlane and his journeys on foot.
In Flight over Derwent water
On the shoreline of Derwent water in the Lake District after a misty autumnal sunrise, the light breaks through to illuminate one of the many islands situated on the water, highlighting the glorious autumnal foliage. At the same time, some wildfowl fly in formation, low to the water, adding balance to an already delightful morning vignette. One of those beautiful experiences that are hard to forget and rarely replicated.